Cancer: Evidence Consistent with Epigenetic Carcinogenesis

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.30683/1929-2279.2022.11.06

Keywords:

Malignant phenotype, abnormal transmigration, gene silencing, DNA methylation, defective epigenetic copying, initiation, promotion

Abstract

This brief review outlines the accumulated evidence which favours a mechanism of cancer generation that is dependent on defective vertical transmission of the pattern of epigenetic control of genetic expression. This model is based on the initiating lesion involving the process that copies the epigenetic features when stem cells undergo mitosis.

References

Riley PA. Epigenetic carcinogenesis and genetic instability: competitive aspects of the malignant phenotype. J Mol Oncol Res 2018; 2: 1-3. https://doi.org/10.35841/molecular-oncology.2.2.42-44 DOI: https://doi.org/10.35841/molecular-oncology.2.2.42-44

Riley PA. Cellular proliferative domains: barriers to migration. Cancer Nature 2018; 1: 1-2. https://doi.org/10.24983/scitemed.cn.2018.00079 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24983/scitemed.cn.2018.00079

Bradley A, Evans M, Kaufman MH, Robertson E. Formation of germ-line chimaeras from embryo-derived teratocarcinoma cell lines. Nature 1984; 309: 255-256. https://doi.org/10.1038/309255a0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/309255a0

Boddington MM, Spriggs AI. Cytological diagnosis of cancer: Its uses and limitations. Brit Med J 1965; 5449: 1523-1529. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5449.1523 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5449.1523

Riley PA. Is the initial event in carcinogenesis an enhancement of the mutation rate? Free Rad Res Comms 1990; 11: 59-63. https://doi.org/10.3109/10715769009109668 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/10715769009109668

Burnet FM. Immunological Surveillance. Pergamon Press. Oxford UK 1970. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-017481-5.50012-2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-017481-5.50012-2

Riley PA. Failure of fidelity of vertical transmission of epigenetic patterning as the basis of cancer. Melanoma Res 2014; 24: 424-427. https://doi.org/10.1097/CMR.0000000000000100 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/CMR.0000000000000100

Riley PA. Cancer is the outcome of defective epigeneic copying of the pattern of selective gene activity in differentiated cells. Canc Res Frontiers 2015; 1: 280-287. https://doi.org/10.17980/2015.280 DOI: https://doi.org/10.17980/2015.280

Holliday R, Pugh JE. DNA modification mechanisms and gene activity during development. Science 1975; 187: 226-232. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.187.4173.226 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.187.4173.226

Riggs AD. X inactivation, differentiation, and DNA methylation. Cytogenet Cell Genet 1975; 14: 9-25. https://doi.org/10.1159/000130315 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1159/000130315

Luger K, Mader AW, Richmond RK, Sargent DF, Richmond TJ. Crystal structure of the nucleosome core particle at 2.8 A resolution. Nature 1997; 389: 251-260. https://doi.org/10.1038/38444 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/38444

Margueron R, Reinberg D. Chroatin structure and the inheritance of epigenetic information. Nat Rev Genet 2010; 11: 285-296. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg2752 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg2752

Wigler M, Levy D, Perucho M. The somatic replication of DNA methylation. Cell 1981; 24: 33-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(81)90498-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(81)90498-0

Jones PA, Liang G. Rethinking how DNA methylation patterns are maintained. Nat Rev Genet 2009; 10: 805-811. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg2651 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg2651

Law JA, Jacobsen SE. Establishing, maintaining and modifying DNA methylation patterns in plants and animals. Nat Rev Genet 2010; 11: 204-220. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg2719 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nrg2719

Levene AJ, Greenbaum B. Maintenance of epigenetic states by p53: The guardian of the epigenome. Oncotarget 2012; 3: 1503-1504. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.780 DOI: https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.780

Riley PA. The epigenetic theory of carcinogenesis: p53 as the guardian of the epigenome. J Oncol Cancer Res 2017; 1: 1-6. https://doi.org/10.28967/jocr.2017.01.17002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.28967/jocr.2017.01.17002

Muller PAJ, Vousden KH. p53 mutations in cancer. Nature Cell Biol 2013; 15: 2-8. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncb2641 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/ncb2641

Riley PA. Epigenetic error and large-scale genomic instability in cancer. Biomed J Sci Tech Res 2018; 2018: 4. https://doi.org/10.26717/BJSTR.2018.04.0001057 DOI: https://doi.org/10.26717/BJSTR.2018.04.0001057

Robertson KD, Keyomarsi K, Gonzales FA, Velicescu M, Jones PA. Differential mRNA expression of the human DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) 1,3a,and 3b during the G0/G1 to s phase transition in normal and tumor cells. Nucleic Acids Res 2000; 28: 2108-2113. https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/28.10.2108 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/28.10.2108

Riley PA. Cancer incidence in relation to species size: The Peto paradox in the light of the theory of epigenetic carcinogenesis. J Med Oncol 2018; 1: 11-14. https://doi.org/10.32907/RO-105-1417 DOI: https://doi.org/10.32907/RO-105-1417

Arrmitage P, Doll R. The age distribution of cancer and a multi-stage theory of carcinogenesis. Brit J Canc 1954; 8: 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1954.1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/bjc.1954.1

Riley PA. Epigenetic theory of carcinogenesis: Investigation of the model of age-specific incidence. PRAS 2017; 1: 14-19.

Tomasetti C, Vogelstein B. Cancer etiology: Variation in cancer risk among tissues can be explained by the number of stem cell divisions. Science 2015; 347: 78-81. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1260825 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1260825

Frank SA. Dynamics of cancer: Incidence, inheritance and evolution. Prineton University Press, Princeton NJ 2007. https://doi.org/10.1515/9780691186863 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9780691186863

Ross RK, Paganini-Hill A, Wan PC, Pike MC. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on breast cancer risk: Estrogen versus estrogen plus progestin. L Natl Canc Inst 2000; 92: 328-332. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/92.4.328 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/92.4.328

Pompei F, Wilson R. Age-distribution of cancer: the incidence turnover at old age. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 2001; 7: 1619-1650. https://doi.org/10.1080/20018091095267 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/20018091095267

Downloads

Published

2022-10-10

How to Cite

Riley, P. A. (2022). Cancer: Evidence Consistent with Epigenetic Carcinogenesis. Journal of Cancer Research Updates, 11, 39–42. https://doi.org/10.30683/1929-2279.2022.11.06

Issue

Section

Articles